Many theories try to explain a phenomenon of leadership. Perhaps, the oldest of them which did not lose and today the relevance, is the theory of lines. It was created on the basis of detection of the qualities inherent in ideal leaders - to heroes. The essence of this theory consists in an explanation of a phenomenon of leadership by outstanding qualities of the person.
high degree of an institutionalizing of process of selection, on lichy numerous institutional filters - formal requirements for holding the posts. It can be party membership, age, length of service, education, the characteristic of the management, etc.;
tendency to reproduction of the existing elite type. In essence, this line follows from the previous - existence of numerous formal requirements, appointment to the post by the top management, and also long stay of the applicant in the ranks of this organization.
Leadership is based on certain requirements of difficult organized systems. First of all the need for self-organization, streamlining of behavior of separate elements of system for ensuring its vital and functional ability concerns to them. Such orderliness is carried out through vertical (management-podchineni and horizontal (correlative single-level communications, for example division of labor and cooperation) distribution of functions and roles and first of all through allocation of administrative function and the structures which are carrying out it which for the efficiency demand, as a rule, the hierarchical, pyramidal organization. As top of such administrative pyramid the leader (protoleader) also acts.
closeness, selection of applicants for higher posts ^ in a way from subordinate layers of the elite, a slow, gradual way upward. Here the difficult chinovnichesky ladder assuming a gradual prodvi-gzheniye on numerous steps of office hierarchy is an example;
The entrepreneur system of recruitment of elite is in many respects opposite to system of guilds. It is distinguished: openness, ample opportunities for representatives of any public groups to apply for occupation of the leading positions; small number of formal requirements, institutional filters; a wide range of a selektorat which can include all voters of the country; high competition of selection, sharpness of rivalry for occupation of the leading posts; variability of structure of elite, the paramount importance for this purpose of personal qualities, individual activity, ability to find support of wide audience to carry away it attractive ideas and programs.